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三重Addendum 下的〈雷克雅未克〉

原刊於《輔仁媒體

addendum

Juno新碟《Addendum》剛剛推出,千呼萬喚始出來的「三部曲」外傳〈雷克雅未克〉亦在出碟前數日公開,評價好壞參半,無非「呢啲先至係Juno」或「周國賢唱晒仲好」。筆者毫無音樂才華,就不參與這評價之爭;而且反正出名的歌曲很快會有詞評,所以筆者亦決定無視歌詞,所以本文僅旨在從碟名說起,很簡短地論斷一下〈雷克雅未克〉所展示的三重「Addendum」。(不知addendum是甚麼的朋友請先自行google。)

 

第一重:外傳的定位

〈耿耿於懷〉、〈念念不忘〉和〈羅生門〉是一個「三部曲」,早已是一個官方的說法。既然是三部曲,即一男一女的故事主線至〈羅生門〉已完結,圍繞同一個男主角所延伸、衍生的故事,包括〈瑕疵〉和〈雷克雅未克〉,定位僅屬外傳。從文本定位而言,外傳就是主線這個「main text」的「addendum」。因此,〈雷克雅未克〉不是〈羅生門〉的結局,「三部曲」故事的結局是〈羅生門〉,〈雷克雅未克〉只是那三部曲的addendum。

 

第二重:不平衡的「合唱」

可能有人會問「周國賢出場嚟做乜?」,答案其實也是addendum。曲末周國賢的一小段,既與開首呼應,卻又自成一體,既都是長年單思的失戀者故事,卻換了場景和人物。性質類近的故事以如此結構不平衡的方式敘述,一方就成了另一方的補充、附錄。因此,〈雷克雅未克〉不但自身是某個故事的addendum,它當中的歌曲內容和結構,也存在著周國賢這段addendum。

 

第三重:有待補充卻被留白的曲名選詞

〈雷克雅未克〉這曲名,是冰島首都之名。但Reykjavík通常譯作「雷克雅維克」,以「未」字譯「vi」之音,肯定不是廣東話的音譯,但即使是中國和台灣,將「vik」譯作「維克」也是主流。為何有主流的「雷克雅維克」不用,而偏要取「雷克雅未克」?

 

需要一個註腳去解釋卻被留白的答案可能是,這曲名可看成包含著兩個人名:,前者「克」,後者「未克」。克者為何?念念不忘之心魔也。相比起Juno所飾之的「終不可碰面 無謂來怨命」,周國賢所飾之還是「時間廢墟裡 尋那不經污染相戀的鐵証」。關於「為何不是主流譯法的『雷克雅維克』?」此等歌曲取名的瑣碎問題,所沒被說出來的addendum,或許就是,此曲還是一個「克,未克」的故事。

 

當然,上述僅為筆者個人論斷,信不信由你。關於此曲,言盡於此,返去聽歌。

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重看八仙嶺山火案:死因聆訊的法律、證據、人性與政治

同時刊於《輔仁媒體

coroner

從台灣八仙塵爆慘劇到十九年前香港八仙嶺大火,兩個八仙竟因一個張潤衡如此連結起來,當初大概誰也沒想過,一場他邦的塵爆,最後引發的竟是一段香港史的重構。筆者偶爾與朋友翻查昔日資料,結果亦參與其中,不得不慨歎科技與網絡的力量,讓昔日山火的大量資料,在數天之間逐一重光。資料盡在於此,筆者已無補充,但就網民對當日死因聆訊的一些疑問,還是可嘗試多說一點。

 

死因聆訊學生供詞結合張潤衡山火當天的照片,幾乎已可以肯定張是身處起火地點的其中一人。但那些照片不是當日死因聆訊的呈堂證據,裁決從未考慮那些照片。最容易想到的理由當然是當時沒人知道那些照片的存在,但實在無法證實。既然如此,倒不如設想一下,如果當時已有人知道那些照片存在,為何它們最後沒有成為聆訊的呈堂證據。

 

在此之前,有一項法律原則和一項事實需要留意,該法律原則是如果有未出席聆訊之人被質疑與死者死因有關,而這質疑又非並空穴來風,死因裁判官就須將聆訊押後,以傳召該人出席聆訊。這是普通法中「自然公義」的體現,也可說是《香港人權法案》公平審訊權利的要求。而同樣需要留意的事實是,當日近兩星期的聆訊期間,張潤衡仍然因傷留院。因此,如果張被質疑與五名死者死因有關,死因裁判官就必須將聆訊押後,待當時仍然住院的張的情況好轉至能出席聆訊作供。

 

整場死因聆訊是公開的,是以當日報章能報導每人的作供內容。我們可以設想,如果當日死因裁判官以張可能與死者死因有關為理由押後聆訊,會發生甚麼事?一宗受公眾關注的案件,法官以個別人士與案件相關但未有出席為由押後聆訊,結果實在不難想像──傳媒的焦點將會落於這仍因重傷住院的中一學童身上,然後將會有各方揣測他是否就是起火元兇,然後他的同學也會再次不得安寧。當一個名字成為一個重要聆訊押後的理由,無論最後聆訊結果如何,那個名字以至身邊的人必得承受輿論的重壓。只要當時有人拿出那些顯示張潤衡山火當天衣著的照片,與死因聆訊的學生供詞對照,矛頭定必立刻全數指向張,根本無需等待死因裁決最後結果如何,輿論就足以進行真正的公審;而在這之後,一個全身還留有五成皮膚燒傷疤痕的中一學童,還須就山火人命傷亡的可能責任而當眾出庭,接受訊問。

 

到底是否要為了可能查探得到的真相而把當時仍未康復的張祭上,如果當日處理案件之人在聆訊時已知道那些照片的存在,要考慮的就是這個問題。這個問題所牽涉的計算,還有倘若張在照片呈堂、受盡輿論鞭撻後被死因庭證明清白,決策者須承擔公開照片讓無辜傷者枉受二次傷害的一切輿論反噬。在讓意外以意外作結,和為真相不惜押上自己以至一個已嚴重燒傷的中一學生的一生之間,如何權衡輕重,答案不難明白。

 

今天重看事件,有人認為當日是各方念在張年幼又受傷,對他手下留情,這說法所忽略的是,就當時來說,一張照片,一旦被法庭接納為證據,可以毀掉一個重傷學童今後的一生,又或是讓提呈照片者成為千古罪人,以此為考慮而不公開照片,到底還算不算刻意「手下留情」,也許可以相榷。

 

時移世易,處境不同,昔日的重傷學童,今天已成頭銜眾多的「再生勇士」,從早已公開多年的那些照片重新追求當日的真相,無需因押上自己或他人的一生而叩問良心;讓有責任之人承擔其責任,於情於理,無失其合。以昔日的考量束縛當下之人求真的精神,才真正無稽。所以筆者或會認同當日照片即使存在也不應呈堂,但不能以此為藉口反對網民在十九年後重構真相。只有透過法理和處境重新理解一九九六年的死因聆訊和裁決,才不至令它們成為隱沒更多真相的幫兇。

港大終極慳錢頹食攻略2014

歷代頹食之最 - 舊莊月明canteen (已結業)

歷代頹食之最 – 舊莊月明canteen (已結業)

唔理你係新生入學,定係就grad老鬼,面對大學多姿多采嘅生活,總或有手緊嘅時候,又或者你本身就好似小弟咁係一個極度窮苦學生,咁嘅情況下,與其信咩貸款廣告或傳銷種金,倒不如慳慳地頹食返幾餐,等補完習後又係一條好漢。

一直以來好多人批評港大冇啖好食,落水街或更遠嘅西寶城已經慢慢變成一種習慣,double cohort迫爆campus之後大家就更名正言順四出覓食。對本身就冇乜味覺嘅小弟嚟講,你話出去食係唔係真係正好多我唔評論,但若你講出去附近食有幾平幾抵,就真係同特區警察呢幾年啲遊行數字冇乜分別,冇嘅,呢期農曆七月你咪搵鬼信囉。

港大啲野可能真係唔好食,裝修之前嘅莊月明canteen十仔酸齋飯更可能真係大專學界嘅劣食一哥,但論抵食,只要你識搵,喺港大食一定可以抵到冇朋友 (意思係長期咁食嘅話你肯定會冇朋友)。小弟不才,綜合多年來滯留港大各飯堂嘅經驗,由早餐、晏晝、下午茶到晚飯嚴選campus內最抵食法,務求令你餐餐廿零蚊以內有嘢食有嘢飲。做定心理準備,由於係頹食,所以啲咩Grove、Subway、一粥麵,甚至係新莊月明嘅偽pepper lunch都唔會有得食,如果睇到呢句你已經覺得接受唔到,請你click上一頁返去買你嘅七折Starbucks。

 

 

早餐

地點:SU can
食品:餐蛋麵
價錢:$13.5 連熱飲

港大啲大canteen嘅好玩之處,在於往往有隱藏食品比你發掘,由舊莊月明嘅車仔飯,到潛伏SU can好多年嘅餐蛋麵,通通都係抵食之選。叫得餐蛋麵,可以轉做腿蛋通是常識吧,查實收銀機前面有張粉紅色紙,左上角有晒成個list比你配搭,自選兩樣餸搭通粉、米粉或福麵。唔要兩樣餸可以要炸菜肉絲添 (好似係),但感覺上冇咁抵,雖然點都會抵過你食餐牌上嗰啲咩南瓜粟米粥搭炒麵。

同屬大家樂集團嘅Swire can理論上都有同樣嘅野,但小弟最近未有機會親身查證。

 

午餐

地點:SU can / Swire can
食品:單餸飯
價錢:約$18連熱飲

晏晝如果你搵到位嘅話,如果你搵到位嘅話,如果你搵到位嘅話 (很重要所以要說三遍),其實SU同Swire can仲有另一隱藏食品,就係明明只寫雙餸但你可以叫單餸嘅飯。單餸平過雙餸不在話下,兜餸仲要大兜啲,即係話如果你同friend去食,comm掂食同樣嘅餸嘅話,買兩個單餸飯share,啲餸總量一定多過你買兩個雙餸。當然,如果有朋友會肯同你做埋呢啲頹到冇朋友嘅嘗試,你都係時候要重新估計下佢嘅為人。

 

下午茶

地點:SU can
食品:餐蛋麵
價錢:$14.5 連熱飲

你冇睇錯,為增加頹廢度,係同早餐同一樣嘅野,仲要唔知點解貴咗一蚊,呢個問題我諗就算你問收銀嗰班阿姐都答你唔到點解。雖然係貴左一蚊,但比起嗰啲咩冰極魚柳或雞翼搭半件西多都仲要平一截。

另外下午茶應該仲有一樣隱藏食品叫西多,係就咁全份西多,又係餐牌上冇,幾年前叫過,唔怕熱氣嘅話歡迎自行向收銀阿姐查證而家仲有冇。

 

晚飯

地點:一念素食
食品:日日唔同
價錢:自助形式,價錢段重量計,最低消費$20

由於一日三餐都幫襯大家樂集團好似有啲令人難以接受,所以晚飯轉個地點。呢間一念素食喺港大都好出名,應該唔駛小弟多介紹,玩法亦大部份人都知,每100克餸十五蚊,最低消費廿蚊。晏晝晚飯同價,但前面已經介紹過,晏晝有更抵食嘅選擇。

100克有幾少野我諗去食過嘅人都知,200克三十蚊份量嘅餸其實都只係啱啱好夠攝牙罅。

但小弟放得喺到推介,大家都應該有心理準備知咩事同點解,冇錯,想頹想平嘅原則就係貪佢飯同湯任食,盡量比最低消費廿零蚊將自己撐飽到宵夜都唔駛食。未必個個知道嘅係如果你啲餸嘅份量未夠最低消費,收銀會叫你返去夾多啲,所以慳錢嘅原則就係寧願太少餸後加都好過一次過夾得太多,而且煲湯個底到其實有湯渣可以當餸。好似喺屋企阿媽阿婆成日同你講咁,飲多碗湯,裝多碗飯,廿零蚊飽到抱住個肚走冇難度。

 

舊莊月明熱水機

舊莊月明熱水機

時代變遷,昔日相較舊莊月明已經算係好食同稍貴嘅SU can如今已經變成頹食首選,裝修完變晒質嘅新莊月明已經冇乜真正稱得上平嘅嘢。但呢兩年先入學嘅人唔會明,當你幾年來晚晚喺連年初一都開嘅莊月明入面,一邊食住碟十仔,一邊見住啲阿姐用粉紅色托盤墊地嚟拖垃圾膠袋、直接開熱水機倒水落地拖水桶,係有一種親切感喺度。呢種感覺,就好似黃克競樓條紅梯咁,見證一個時代。

然後此情不再。

My review of BiS’s Disbanding Live

BiS’s disbanding live was held on 8 July 2014 in Yokohama Arena. Notwithstanding the official information until even a week before the live that there had still been 10000 tickets unsold, according to my own observation 80% of the more-than-10000 seats in the venue were filled. In other words, by a conservative estimation there were at least 8000 attendees, which is quite a successful mobilization of fans (to an extent that includes even a Hongkonger like me).

disbanding_ticket

I arrived Tokyo on 7 July, one day before the disbanding live, as well as the second day of BiS’s photo exhibition with the theme of “before-death funeral” held in Shibuya. I visited the photo exhibition partly to get myself ready for the live on the next day. In addition to a tiny mourning hall with BiS members’ photos (which replicates the setting of a traditional Japanese funeral), the exhibition also has six sex dolls, each with a member’s face, something we can also find from the cover of the Best Album Uryaoi. Such masochistic portrayals of death and sexual objectification are the BiS style which I always find appealing. The idea of “before-death funeral” had also been adopted in the venue of the disbanding live, where another mourning counter was set up for fans to express their “condolences”; multiple white lanterns and funeral wreaths could be found. Needless to say, such an interesting setup has attracted a lot of photo-taking.

IMG_20140707_193446 IMG_20140707_193845 ???????????????????????????????

Audiences were allowed entrance after 3:30pm, though the live would not have started until 5:30pm (and it turned out starting at 6pm). During that gap period Mitsuya (蜜矢), a new 22-year-old male singer sharing the same manager with BiS, gave his performance on the stage (this is not a bad opportunity to promote himself anyway). More interestingly, a special entrance had been made for those who held a low-price 2000JPY ticket. Fans had always been discouraged from buying this type of ticket; that special entrance also deliberately made the holders of low-price tickets feel neglected – the staff who received them looked like some impolite underworld guys and the passage towards the auditorium was placed with banana skins. These low-price ticket holders were again ridiculed by the host during the opening of the live. This kind of behavioural joke might have brought to the audiences another unforgettable moment of the evening. As a holder of a normal ticket (costing 6000JPY), I receive neither such “bad” treatments for low-price ticket holders, nor the privileges, given only to those who had bought a premium ticket, to behave as panic as BiS’s Researchers (i.e. loyal fans) in ordinary BiS’s lives. What was celebrating enough is that my seat was at least not among the farthest from the stage.

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via internet

via internet

I was also glad that my seat was at the front side of the stage, though it was not quite possible to see BiS members’ face during their performance. Instead, I could see clearly how the crowd of the audiences surrounded the stage, which was especially epic when the live began with the nerve mass dance led by BiS and its three former members (Michibayashi Rio, who resigned in order to find a job and has become an office lady, even wore a formal suit to show her present status). This crowd mass dance alone made the live a worth-watching one, but this was only the beginning. After the first song BiS’s manager and sound producer came onto the stage and led the audiences to sing We Will Rock You together, celebrating the success of BiS in attracting the large amount of disbanding live attendees, perhaps also gaining time for the members to have further preparation. When the six members returned, it was an almost non-stop singing throughout the night, without any self-introduction and conversation with fans (which always occurred in ordinary lives), and only one three-minute break among the three hours of singing, from new songs to old songs. These hours were simply awesome, especially when it came to the second last song Reribi (レリビ), during which many of us ran and jumped around, followed then by the final song nerve (again), bring the live to the end with another stadium-wide mass dance.

 

It is noteworthy that despite being a live concert of a female idol group, BiS’s disbanding live had a surprisingly high female-to-male ratio, which is at least 3:7 according to my own observation. There were even two loyal female Researches with twintails wearing a school swimsuit to support BiS, who had it as the performing dresses for their debut single album PPCC. By the way, believe it or not, the girls next to me were more familiar with Wotagei (ヲタ芸) than I do, of which I don’t know whether I should be proud or ashamed.

 

The most controversial part of the night comes to be the announcement at the end by the manager about the next step of the members of the disbanded group. Basically except Tentenko, who becomes free from any artist contract and will perform as a DJ in rock events in august, everyone will continue to stay in the entertainment industry; some of them are even forming new idol groups. The news gave the audiences the impression that the disbanding of the group was not a genuine one. Worse still, it was then announced that a live performance by the “former BiS” would be held on the next day (9 July), of which ticket fee is 30000JPY, telling brutally to the world that the disbanding had been somewhat a gimmick.

 

Fierce criticisms are expected, and it is perfectly understandable that some fans feel deceived. Nonetheless, I just find everything above consistent with what BiS has always done (or at least since the second half of 2013, when I first knew the group), which is exactly to exemplify the bloodiest and most avoided sides of the idol industry through themselves being idols. From DiE and primal.2 MVs, the inhumane country-wide tour during which members had to sleep on a coach and eat only self-cooked rice, to emphasizing “10000 tickets unsold” to beg for support, BiS have just been consistent.

 

Furthermore, given the fact that each member will from now on develop a different career, BiS, the only GROUP that has attracted me, has disbanded in a genuine sense. The attractiveness of the BiS lies, rather than (purely) in the appearance or talent of one particular member, in the totality of the six members each playing their own role in the boundary-pushing group and the effects thus generated. If only members’ appearance is concerned, to be frank, except Tentenko I find no one really appealing, while there are plenty of other Japanese idols who are much prettier. I would admit that Tentenko was the one who first caught my attention on BiS and is now still my most favourite member, but there are much more in BiS without which I would not have flied to Japan for their disbanding live. Hirano Nozomi may have been most severely criticized for her appearance, but in my view she is literally the pillar of the group, not only because she is the only establishing member other than the leader Pour Lui to sustain the group, but also because of her rare skill among idols to make live consonance for songs. The wildness (in whatever meaning) of First Summer Uika and the dancing, cosplay, and auditorium diving of Kamiya Saki also bring to the group artistic qualities for appreciation. With regard to youngest, most junior and immature Koshouji Megumi, maybe she is not very talented a stage performer, but she has the affinity internally essential for a group. The tension-easing effect of her mere existence has contributed to the solidarity of the group, partly explaining why BiS have not repeated the desperate fate of having one member resigning after another. It is BiS with their final six members, most well-balanced both internally and externally, which are most appreciable; it is also BiS with these six members which have genuinely disbanded.

 

To those who like BiS more as a group than for a particular member, the disbanding is neither a lie nor a mere gimmick; the disbanding live on 8 July with more than 8000 audiences is an end, a really good end. Ending itself may be saddening, but BiS is thereby immortal.

A self-referential research of idols: on Brand-new Idol Society

*This is an English translation of my article written in Feb 2014 with some updates, originally in Chinese.

 

When the term “research” is mentioned in Hong Kong, people may immediately think of the following conversation in Stephen Chow’s comedy From Beijing with Love: “I am now having a research job in the Central Institute of Psychiatry. (What is the subject of research?) I am the subject of research!” Such a joke may equally be applied to Brand-new Idol Society, a Japanese female idol group.

 

Brand-new Idol Society, or Sin-sei Idol Ken-kyu-kai (新生アイドル研究会, literally translated as Newborn Idol Research Society) in Japanese, commonly known as “BiS”, is not really popular in Hong Kong (personally I have never heard of them from any of my friends). Nonetheless, the title of this idol group is interesting enough: a “society” in the name of researching on idol is itself an idol group. On what is to be researched by them then?

 

BiS are frequently labelled as “unorthodox idols” in Japan (which they have always admitted). It is by no means difficult to have a quick grasp of their extraordinariness with simply a Google search; what I can supplement here are only few:

1) Since their formation in late 2010, they have had their number of members increased from four to six, but there are in total five members who have resigned; three resigned in 2013, followed by the joining of four new members in the second half of the same year.

2) The newest member joined in October 2013, at a time the group had repeatedly emphasized that they would disband soon in 2014; eventually it was announced on 12 February 2014 that the disbandment will take place on 8 July 2014 (then they acclaimed “hurray!” loudly together with their fans).

3) There were some rumours among the Sinophone sphere that BiS had been ridiculed by netizens for having too much bodily contact with fans and thus nicknamed as “touchable idol”, but actually these are in no sense only pieces of news among netizens, but officially endorsed views.

 

If BiS are truly researching on idols, they, being themselves idols, do it in a way of pushing every boundary and bottom-line of the concept “idols” with experimental acts. These acts include not only nude and porn-like depiction, MVs with homosexuality, rape, prostitution, physical violence, endoscopic images and bodily mechanization as themes, and the infiltration of death metal and noise into their music, but also adopting cockroaches, robots and display of human organs in the design of performing dresses. Moreover, being an idol group, they set their goal at nothing else but disbanding. All these upset the existing impression and understanding towards Japanese female idol groups.

 

But the previous paragraph has to start with a really big “if”. The researches, if they really deserve the name, lack any detachment of the subject from the object, which is expected in any serious research. As a matter of fact, BiS has admitted that their unorthodoxy is a way to survive (as idols) in the “Sengoku Era of Idols”. In other words, the unorthodoxy is with less a pure intention to research than to earn a living as idols. To conclude what BiS has done in such a way is however inadequate if the following question is asked: why they still push the moral boundary with their own bodies, rather than performing as idols in a much safer way, especially when they are not actually going to survive as idols for long after the decision to disband? It is not a question that I have an answer; maybe it is not a question which need be taken seriously. Praising their courage to be different is too hypocritical a comment; what should really be appreciated are the artistic effects of unreasonableness – no matter whether they are intended – which their ground-breaking MVs also possess.

 

 

Design of performing dresses for single album "Fly/Hi" is originated in cockroach.

Design of performing dresses for single album “Fly/Hi” is originated in cockroach.

 

Perhaps someone, particularly immature leftists, would denounce BiS’s unorthodoxy and provocative acts as merely enabling the consumption of alternativeness: after all, idols, who have to survive on fans’ support and media exposure, cannot really escape the power relation between watching and being watched. However, this general view on idols is not quite applicable to BiS, for their fans (called “ken-kyu-in”, or researchers), especially those active ones, are always part of BiS’s performance.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fkx3mduXD20

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-G_f5_x1VQE

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=shbfc6DVCmY

Watching how these fans join BiS’s performance in a comical but proficient manner, and then becoming part of them, are somewhat the greatest motivation of attending a BiS’s live show.

 

The group who researches on idol becomes the researched; audiences who watch a performance become also the watched. BiS is such a performing group which has successfully caused confusion between subjects and objects. Breaking various boundaries in the name of researches, BiS has caused significant effects which are worth studying. Becoming idols – someone supposed to be “consumed” – under the name of research is not to subvert the definition of idols (it is nothing worthwhile to emphasize on subversion after all, especially when you know how easy one can be prosecuted for subverting state power in People’s Republic of China); rather, it is to make research also an object to be consumed, hence provoking the consumers’ reflection on what they have really consumed. As a matter of effect, BiS can really be said as contributing to researches on Japanese female idols and their performance, though extraordinarily unorthodox not only in terms of how they act as idols but also how such researches (if any) have been conducted – collapsing the boundary between subject and object.

 

To many, it may be unnecessary to complicate thing as such when it comes to J-Pop. You can also enjoy BiS’s music just by watching the MVs, then you will be shocked and feel the difference between BiS and the other Japanese female idols groups, as if when you encounter some modern art works which cannot be completely understood with your rationality. Of course, to be able to enjoy, you first have to prepare yourself for something a bit hardcore.

 

Update after Feb 2014

1. The design of performing dresses keeps surprising. The ones since April looked ordinary, or strictly speaking too ordinary to be performing dresses – only some causal wears with a floral pattern. The great trick which again makes BiS stand out is, however, that the cloth on the dresses can be torn out part by part; the dresses then gradually become completely tattered, like something worn by girls in desperate hardship. Being the performing dresses toward disbandment, they somewhat reflect or symbolize the damages suffered by the members during the difficult journey of idols.

2. The disbanding Best album is with outrage graphical theme: abandoned sex dolls. The covers of the album are sex dolls with the members’ photos treated as garbage. The double self-denunciation – sexual self-objectification and abandonment – is again thought-provocative, exposing the meaning of disbandment of a female idol group to its ugly extreme.

Final best album "Uryaoi"

Final best album “Uryaoi”

 

佛誕網絡文化

buddha birthday

佛誕,高登重要節日,其於香港網絡界受歡迎程度可能高於聖誕,因為一眾毒男 (包括筆者) 無須苦於被旁人放閃,又或是意識到自己的單身又已一年。同為宗教人物誕日,相比於聖誕,佛誕是這樣一個節日氣氛不甚濃厚的節日,「每逢佳節上高登」,但佛誕不在這佳節之列。

 

佛誕跟高登、以至香港網絡界的關係,在筆者看來,深具偶然性,是數個巧合碰撞起來的文化現象:

1. 《F5潮文》末句「點撚知我禁撚到佛誕都仲未有野出」,佛誕的突然被提及,兀突卻具體,讓佛誕的存在感透過潮文的回帶深種於網民心中。末句提及佛誕,大概基於中段的「我拆開聖誕老人送既禮物」,佛誕跟聖誕,同為宗教節日假期,亦僅一字之差,更帶出時間推移。此種巧妙,也是這篇潮文有趣和吸引人回帶之處。

 

2. 高登和香港網絡界普遍反耶,聖誕於香港社會的宗教意義雖已消失得七七八八,但每年還是有不少教會人士借聖誕傳教,令人煩厭,間接促使網民尋找能與聖誕抗衡的文化依據。以華人傳統宗教對抗耶教,以慶佛誕抗過聖誕,正是這種文化抗衡的體現。

 

3. 高登煩膠「老衲」和「貧僧」,刻意以佛門中人作網名出位地大談佛門所不容之事 (如吃狗肉),引發二次創作,佛教自然也就成為創作的主題的一部份,結果就是佛教在高登網民心目中的存在感得以進一步提升,而佛誕作為此宗教於香港最廣為人知的慶祝節日,與網絡文化的關係也間接地變得更密切。

 

4. 高登名人「無敵神駒」創作一系列華人傳統節日歌曲,其中改自《We wish you a Merry Christmas》的《高登佛誕歌》最為膾炙人口,「如來佛都佛你」一句廣為網民傳頌,此曲也可謂包括《罪與佛》一系列歌曲在內佛教二次創作歌曲的的先聲。有網絡歌曲「玩膠」慶祝,自然又增添了佛誕的網絡文化意義。

 

佛誕於香港網絡界的興起,由此看來,主要跟其能於文化上與聖誕相對、抗衡有關。佛誕與聖誕的對立,背後是一套以華人傳統節日質疑西方節日 (特別是宗教節日) 是否具有「節日」的一般代表性的策略。當然,佛教在香港網民心目中的存在感和地位,也是佛誕會從云云華人傳統節日中脫穎而出成為這文化對抗策略代表的原因。

 

身為本土派,筆者稍有擔憂的是以華人文化體系作為文化抗衡的依據,會否不自覺地成為鞏固大中華思想的同謀。然而,佛誕的網絡化 (或「膠化」),某程度上也可視為對這華人傳統節日的本土化,透過將佛誕從其本意剝離,衍生出在其他華文地區看不到、根據其傳統理念也難以理解的活動,也未嘗不是最形象化的本土特色。如果是這樣的話,如何將佛誕網絡文化鞏固、推演成更具廣泛性的本土節日文化,就是值得本土派考慮的文化策略。

對台灣反服貿,一開始就說不出甚麼來

這幾天沒有像Facebook上的朋友般就台灣學生的佔領行動評論太多,因為發現,作為香港人,原來很難不抽水地對從香港的角度去評論反服貿。要不抽佔領學生那鼓守衛台灣的熱誠,要不抽香港的政治參與者 (和2010年的高鐵示威),以港台比較入手的評論,由於與香港的距離太近 (和對台灣時局認知不夠深入),難免流為一己立場的宣示。但筆者這次不想抽水,所以不如少說。

 

警察的暴力清場,令不少之前說台灣警察體察學生的人跟車太貼中伏,但隨之而來的又是另一個泛一般化的極端結論:不論何地,總之示威者跟警察永遠無可能同一陣線──被眼前事件的震撼影響對偶然性的認知,是評論者的又一致命傷。學生是被警察打得頭破血流了,但筆者絕不會說是另一次「六四」,一來因為台灣有民主政體,一旦出現六四式鎮壓國民黨政權必定倒台,無須甚麼平反,二來史上暴政鎮壓人民的事件從不止六四,為何偏偏要用中國的鎮壓事件作類比?台灣人不是中國人,無需一看見台灣出現暴力清場就聯想到昔日的中國,這樣只會成為建構「大中華命運共同體」的同謀。

 

筆者不是台灣人,說甚麼支持台灣、台灣加油也無非是最廉價的「精神上支持」,所以還能客觀理性 (或冷血) 地作上述的分析。作為香港人,還要是極端本土派,筆者對台灣有的頂多是同理心,絕對說不上歸屬感,故支持和同情難以是純粹、毫無私心的,最終想的還是香港。這是筆者不帶悔改的懺悔。

 

因此,台灣人,請不要理我們,想著你們的台灣,打倒你們台灣的敵人就可以了。筆者這個幫不了甚麼的外人,不作濫情的支持,是對自己的私心的坦白,也是不讓這私心玷辱你們的一腔熱血所最能做的事。

立體的偶像研究──短評日本偶像團體BiS

說起研究,可能不少香港人都會記得《國產凌凌漆》中羅家英的一句對白:「喺中央精神病研究所做研究工作。(負責做啲咩?) 畀人研究!」這個笑話,或許也適用於日本女性偶像團體「新生偶像研究會」BiS身上。

BiS現時成員:(左起) ヒラノノゾミ、コショージメグミ、ファーストサマーウイカ、カミヤサキ、プー・ルイ、テンテンコ

BiS現時成員:(左起) ヒラノノゾミ、コショージメグミ、ファーストサマーウイカ、カミヤサキ、プー・ルイ、テンテンコ

新生偶像研究會 (新生アイドル研究会),英文名稱是Brand-new idol Society,故簡稱「BiS」,在香港應該沒甚麼名氣 (起碼筆者從未聽任何朋友提起過),但單是名字已頗有值得玩味之處:說是偶像研究會自己卻是偶像,那到底要研究甚麼?這種偶像和偶像研究之間的張力,值得細味一番。

她們在日本,常被稱為「邪道Idol」(她們也這樣形容自己),其實只要上google搜尋一下,你也很快就能知道她們到底有多出位和另類,所以筆者就不再一一列出了,但也不妨再補充幾點:

1) 她們由2010年底成立至今不足四年,成員人數由最初四人變為現今的六人,但前後也總共有五人退出;單是2013年就走了三個,又在短短半年內新增四名成員。

2) 最新的成員在去年10月才加入,但在此之前整隊已不斷強調將會在2014年解散,而最終在本年2月12日宣佈將於7月8 日正式解散 (宣佈之後還跟Fans一起高呼「萬歲」)。

3) 華文圈去年11、12月流傳甚麼網友踢爆與Fans過火親密接觸、被網友揶揄為「揉得到的偶像」等,其實與網友無關,全都是官方自己上載的宣傳片

去年六月底與日本噪音樂隊「非常階段」組成「BiS階段」

去年六月底與日本噪音樂隊「非常階段」組成「BiS階段」

如果BiS真的算是在研究偶像到底是甚麼,那麼她們的研究方式就是以偶像的身份自行不斷地對偶像的界線和底線進行各種實驗,包括宣傳上反覆以裸體和色情為賣點,MV以同性戀強姦援交暴力內窺鏡身體機械化等畫面為主題,音樂上滲入死亡搖滾噪音,連演出服裝的設計都以曱甴、機械人和內臟為藍本,以至團隊本身就以解散為目標,都挑戰著常人對女性偶像團體的印象和理解。

單曲專輯《Fly/Hi》的服裝設計以曱甴為藍本

單曲專輯《Fly/Hi》的服裝設計以曱甴為藍本

筆者之所以強調「算是」,是因為她們絕對沒有研究所應有的抽離。事實上,她們一直都坦言走另類路線是她們在「偶像戰國年代」中製造綽頭和生存的手段。換言之,她們的出位,大概沒甚麼純粹為了研究的意圖,而是身為偶像的「搵食」技倆。但如果就這樣結論的話,則又有一個問題:為何早早已決定要解散的她們,不選擇安全一點地搵食,而仍要不惜犧牲色相不斷衝擊道德底線呢?筆者也想不明白,也許認真你就輸了,筆者也不虛偽地說讚賞她們的勇氣,但這種難以用常理或理性理解所造就的藝術性──即使本人不必有藝術的意圖──一如她們的MV,筆者深深欣賞和享受。

當然,有人 (特別是左膠?) 會覺得以出位和重口味為賣點,也不過是讓人消費另類,靠支持度和曝光率維生的演藝圈中人,根本就逃離不了看與被看的權力關係。不過,這說法對BiS來說卻未必適用,因為BiS的支持者 (稱「研究員」),特別是死忠狂熱的,往往可說是她們現場表演的一部份,且看以下片段:


看這些狂熱支持者熟練而誇張地加入到表現當中,大概才是現場表現的真正樂趣所在。

說要研究偶像的自己成為研究的對象,去看表現的自己成為表現的一部份,BiS就是能引起這樣的主客體關係錯亂。以研究之名去做出種種的越界行為,其效果和影響本身才是最值得研究之處。為本身只被消費的偶像添上研究之名,不是真的要顛覆偶像的定義 (在這個世代中「顛覆」已經很廉價,你看在中國被控顛覆國家政權是多麼的容易),而是讓所謂的「研究」也被消費,留待身為消費者的我們興起研究反思之念。從這角度看,BiS的偶像研究也可真的算是曲線而立體,不存在絕對的主體和客體。

當然,聽J-Pop從來也可以不用想得這樣複雜,打開MV,感受BiS跟其他偶像團體截然不同的獨特風格和畫面的視覺衝擊,或視之為不應用理性解讀的藝術作品,也是另一種享受。不過前提是,你要先像筆者一般,接受重口味能成為一種享受。

孔允明案之以法論法(4):如何解決案件將引起的新移民問題

來到本系列最後一篇,本文將討論政府可如何合法地解決孔案將引起的新移民問題。若你不認為新移民會對香港造成問題,可以不理。

一、廢除《基本法》第二十四條第二段第()

從一九九九年居港權問題,歷「雙非」、家庭團聚等爭議,到現在的綜援申請資格,其實一切問題皆來自基本法第二十四條第二段:

「香港特別行政區永久性居民為:

(一) 在香港特別行政區成立以前或以後在香港出生的中國公民;

(二) 在香港特別行政區成立以前或以後在香港通常居住連續七年以上的中國公民;

() ()()兩項所列居民在香港以外所生的中國籍子女;(以下省略)」

第(三)項令大量港生大陸出生子女擁有居港權,亦是單程證制度和引至九九年釋法的的元兇。正因為他們本身擁有居港權,要求他們申請單程證充其量只是延緩其行使來港權利的行政措施,對於他們香港政府無法如對待外地移民一般作出資產審查,而所謂的家庭團聚權利其實是來自港人大陸配偶可藉照顧年幼子女為由一併申請單程證以獲得居港權,這變相令擁有中國籍的家庭申請團聚時能豁免於資產審查。

因此,一切與單程證相關的問題皆來自第(三)項賦予港生大陸出生子女居港權,只要廢除此項,他們就再不能自動獲得居港權,家庭團聚也就再不能是凌駕於資產審查需要的特權。有了資產審查後,來港的新移民須先有一定的經濟能力,其倚賴綜援的可能性也就大大降低。

二、進行針對新移民的社會福利開支研究,為居港年數要求重新提供理據

筆者深明中共不會輕易答允修改《基本法》,因此另再提一項香港政府可單方面進行的政策建議。孔案判七年限制違憲的原因,是設立限制時的理據無法說服終審法院該限制合理。七年限制在本質上並不一定違憲,只是法院認為當時政府的理據不足夠而已。

因此,只要政府就新移民福利開支進行針對性研究,明確提出須平衡家庭團聚需要和福利開支的政策立場,闡明單程證政策帶來的財政負擔是綜援設居港年數要求背後的考慮,甚至承認政府有需要減少港人大陸配偶和子女申請單程證的誘因以在不同的政策目標之間取得平衡,根據孔案判詞,政府就應將會有充分理據重新設立七年限制 (也可以不是七年)。

只要明白單程證的問題源頭和綜援設居港年數要求在本質上不一定違憲,我們就能為新移民問題提出有效而合法的解決方法。修改《基本法》不容易,但最起碼當務之急是進行關於新移民的福利開支研究。望本土派朋友和議員盡快向政府提出相關要求。

孔允明案之以法論法(3) – 對判詞的三個質疑

終審法院頒下判詞,即為對該案的最終決定,所以無論誰也改變不了2004年設立的綜援七年限制屬違憲的事實。我們無法在法理上推翻終院的判案,但不代表我們不可以在學術上作出反駁。

筆者認為李義法官的判詞應被商榷之處有三。第一個問題是它對社會經濟權利的過度介入。判詞雖承認依法享有社會福利的權利涉及政府的資源分配決策,法院不能代替政府作此決策,並因而確立回答憲法權利分析框架中的第三條問題[1]時必須證明相關決策毫無合理基礎才可判其違憲 (段41-43),但判詞在這方面似有言行不一之嫌。政府的第一個理據──七年限制提醒來港新移民應先確保自身財政能力──被李義法官以與政府尊重港人大陸子女居港權、鼓勵家庭團聚和以年輕新移民活化人口的政策相違為由否決 (段116-118),然而,單以政策之間的衝突為由裁定此理據並非合理基礎,正反映法院對資源分配的過度介入。政策之間的衝突,需要的是政府在它們之間作出平衡和相應的資源分配,而不是否定其中一個政策。提醒有權以家庭團聚為由來港的新移民應先確保自身財政能力,正是在鼓勵家庭團聚並活化人口和政府財政負擔之間取得平衡,李義法官卻說此「極不吸引」,實有代替政府進行政策目標取捨之嫌。

同樣的分析能應用於判詞認為單程證與七年限制並無符合理智的關連的結論上,這正是判詞的第二個問題。李義法官認為基於上述單程證背後的三個政策,政府只豁免十八歲以下新移民的申請資格卻要求其父母須先居港七年不合邏輯 (段63)。但只要考慮到這些政策涉及財政代價,法院就不應作此結論,因為七年限制正是嘗試於該三個政策目標和其財政代價之間取得平衡。過份武斷地把政策之間的衝突理解為不合邏輯的行為,而完全忽略平衡代價這個詮釋,是判詞的一大問題。

第三個問題是判詞在否定政府以慈善機構能提供援助為理據解釋七年限制有合理基礎時,犯上循環論證的邏輯謬誤。否定的原因為政府的這個理據等於將其提供社會福利的憲法責任推卸給慈善機構 (段121),邏輯上這先假定了政府為居港未滿七年的新移民提供社會福利是不可推卸的憲法責任。《基本法》中依法享有社會福利的權利容許法院審查任何影響九七前已有明確申領資格的社會福利的決策是否違憲,回答的問題是法律上政府是否可以基於其理據收窄新移民申領社會福利的憲法權利;讓慈善機構代替政府提供某些福利,意味著收窄新移民向政府申領該福利的權利。因此,以把憲法責任推給慈善機構為由否定政府以慈善機構能提供援助為理據,等於假定了政府不能收窄新移民申領社會福利的憲法權利,但這正正是法院要回答而不能先假定答案的問題。

筆者從法律角度對判詞提出質疑,望能拋磚引玉,引起更多對判詞法律觀點的討論。下一篇 (也是最後一篇) 文章將討論合法地解決孔案引起的新移民問題的方法。

(總字數1125,無法遵守每篇少於一千字的承諾,非常抱歉。)


[1]該決策對憲法權利所造成的限制跟其就達成某特定政策目標而言所有著的成效是否合乎比例,詳見本系列第一篇。